Stimulation Of Growth:
Deer velvet antler is an extremely rich, fast growing tissue that
contains many growth elements. Elk can grow up to 50 pounds of
new bone in approximately two month. Due to its fast rate of growth,
deer velvet antler is being looked at as a model for studies on
osteoporosis, as a possible graft for healing fractures, and as
a model for cancer studies.
Recent studies in Japan show that deer velvet antler reduced
signs normally associated with senility.
Traumatic Injury: Deer
velvet antler as an extremely fast growing tissue, is comprised
of many cell types. These include fibroblasts, chondroblassts,
and chondrocytes, and others. All of these are required for
healthy growing bones and tissue. Deer velvet antler is high
in calcium and phosphates which aid in the healing of bones.
Research has shown that deer velvet antler helps to heal neural
(nerve) tissue. This mechanism can be explained by velvet
antler's ability to enhance glycosis to nerve tissue. Deer
velvet antler's relationship to recovery from traumatic injury
could possibly explain its effectiveness against arthritis.
The first documented evidence
of the use of deer velvet antler as a health tonic was found on a
silk scroll recovered from a tomb in Hunan China. The scroll is believed
to be around 2,000 years old and suggests several significant medical
treatments and prescriptions for 52 different diseases. Since three
deer carcasses were found in the same tomb, some believe this indicates
that deer farming was already practiced during the Han Dynasty (202
B.C. to 200 A.D.) for meat and possibly also for medicine.
Some 200 years later, further
reference to the use of deer parts and deer velvet antler was made
in a book called "Shan Nung Bon Cho Kynug". An English translation
of an excerpt from the book reveals some of the health problems deer
velvet antler and products were used to overcome 1800 years ago.
Tests show that deer velvet
antler is almost half amino acids, including trytophane, lysine, threonine,
valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, histidiine, arginine,
proline, hydroxy proline aspartic acid, serine, glutamic acid, glyciine,
alanine, cysteine, methionine, and tryosine.
The cartilage components
which make up the rest of the antler are: chondroycytes, chondroblasts,
glucosamine, glycosaminoglycans, chondroitin sulfate A, anti-inflammantory
for Deer Velvet Antler Research
J. L. 1979. Innervation and blood supply of the antler pedicle
of the Red deer. N Z Vet J. 27: 200-201.
R. H., and P J. Palfreyman. 1983. Properties of New Zealand Deer
Velvet, Part I: Search of the Literature Vol I.Massey University
and Wrightson NMA Ltd.
D. S. 1977. Study on the effect of antler on growth of animals.
III. Effect of antler on the ability of spermatogenesis of cocks
fertilization. Korean J Anim Sci 19: 407-412.
W. J. and J. W. Newberry. 1981 Light microscope studies of the
ossification proccess in developing antlers. In Antler Development
in Cervidae. ed. R. D. Boone. Caesar Kleberg Wildlife Research
Institute. Kingsville Texas. pp 231-260.
M.L.; D. Gombitchi; D.E. Trentham. A pilot trial of oral type
II collagen in the treatment of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.
Arthritis & Rheumatism, 1996; 39 (4): 623-628.
G. A., Bubenik, A.B. 1986. Phylogeny and ontogeny of antlers and
neuro-endocrine regulation of the antler cycle - a review. Saeugetierk.
Mitt. 33(2/3): 97-123.
GA, Schams D, White RJ, Rowell J, Blake J, Bartos L Comp Biochem
Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 1997 Feb;116(2):269-277 Seasonal levels
of reproductive hormones and their relationship to the antler
cycle of male and female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Department
of Zoology, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
Seasonal levels of
LH, FSH, testosterone (T), estradiol, progesterone (P), and prolactin
(PRL) were determined in the plasma of five adult bulls, and five
barren and four pregnant cows of Alaskan reindeer (Rangifer tarandus),
which were sampled every 3 weeks for 54 weeks. The male reproductive
axis was sequentially activated; LH peaked in May-June (2 ng/ml),
FSH in June (51 ng/ml), and T in September (11.8 ng/ml). LH levels
in females reached a maximum in both groups at the end of August
(the beginning of the rut). Seasonal variation in FSH was minimal
in pregnant cows, but exhibited one elevation (41 ng/ml) in barren
ones in November. T levels in cows remained at barely detectable
levels. The decrease of T values observed in both groups in December
and March was not significant. PRL peaked in May in cows (135
ng/ml pregnant, 140 ng/ml non-pregnant) and in June in bulls (92
ng/ml). Estradiol was highest in bulls in the rut (August), in
non-pregnant cows in January and in pregnant cows in April, shortly
before parturition. P levels in the pregnant cows rose from September
and peaked (9 ng/ml) shortly before parturition in April. In the
non-pregnant females P values increased and decreased several
times before peaking (5 ng/ml) in March. In the males, the variation
of T and estradiol levels correlated relatively well with the
antler cycle but in the females the variation of neither estradiol,
progesterone nor T appeared to be related to mineralization or
casting of antlers.
J. T., Y. L Dubryakov and A. L. Taneyeva. 1969. The biological
activity of the antlers of deer and other deer species. Ivestio
Sibirskogo Ordelemia Akalemi Nank SISR. Biological Series No.
J. T. 1980. Man and biologically active substances: The effects
of drugs, diet and pollution on health. Translated by J. H. Appleby.
Pargamon Press, Oxford.
X, Jia Y, Wang B Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih 1992 Feb;17(2):107-110
Inhibitory effects of the extract of pilose antler on monoamine
oxidase in aged mice. [Article in Chinese] Academy of Traditional
Chinese Medicine and Materia Medica, Jilin Province, Changchun.
It was demonstrated
that the water extract of Pilose Antler (WEPA) showed a higher
inhibitory effect on MAO-B activities in the liver and brain tissues
of aged mice, but nearly no effect on NAO-A. WEPA could significantly
increase the contents of 5-HT, NE and DA in the brain tissues
of aged mice. In vitro experiments revealed that the inhibition
of WEPA on MAO-B was competitive, but on MAO-A was of mixed-type.
A.; M. de Bernardi; L. Palmieri; P Lualdi; G. Mautone; G. Ronca.
Metabolic fate of exogenous chondroitin sulfate in man. Arzneim-Forsch./Drug
Res 1991; 41(11): 76~77 I.
JL, Oldham JM, Ambler GR, Bass JJ, Spencer GS, Hodgkinson SC,
Breier BH, Gluckman PD, Suttie JM Endocrinology 1992 May;130(5):2513-2520
Presence of insulin-like growth factor-I receptors and absence
of growth hormone receptors in the antler tip. Ruakura Agricultural
Centre, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Hamilton, New Zealand.
Red deer antler tips
in the growing phase were removed 60 days after the recommencement
of growth for autoradiographical studies and RRAs. Sections were
incubated with radiolabeled GH or insulin-like growth factor-I
(IGF-I), with or without excess competing unlabeled hormones,
and were analyzed autoradiographically. There was negligible binding
of [125I]GH in any histological zone of antler sections. [125I]IGF-I
showed highest specific binding in the chondroblast zone to a
receptor demonstrating binding characteristics of the type 1 IGF
receptor. The lowest specific binding of [125I]IGF-I was to prechondroblasts.
RRAs on antler microsomal membrane preparations RRAs on antler
microsomal membrane preparations confirmed the absence of GH receptors
and the presence of type 1 IGF receptors found by autoradiography.
These findings suggest that IGF-I may act in an endocrine manner
in antler growth through a receptor resembling the type 1 IGF
receptor. The presence of type 1 receptors in the chondroblast
zone implicates IGF-I involvement in cartilage formation through
matrixogenesis. There is no support for IGF-I having a major role
in mitosis in the antler.
JL, Oldham JM, Ambler GR, Molan PC, Spencer GS, Hodgkinson SC,
Breier BH, Gluckman PD, Suttie JM, Bass JJ J Endocrinol 1993 Aug;138(2):233-242
Receptors for insulin-like growth factor-II in the growing tip
of the deer antler. Department of Biological Sciences, University
of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand.
factor-II (IGF-II) binding in the growing tip of the deer antler
was examined using autoradiographical studies, radioreceptor assays
and affinity cross-linking studies. Antler tips from red deer
stags were removed 60 days after the commencement of growth, and
cryogenically cut into sections. Sections were incubated with
radiolabelled IGF-II, with or without an excess of competing unlabelled
IGF-II and analysed autoradiographically. Radiolabelled IGF-II
showed high specific binding in the reserve mesenchyme and perichondrium
zones, which are tissues undergoing rapid differentiation and
cell division in the antler. Binding to all other structural zones
was low and significantly (P < 0.001) less than binding to
the reserve mesenchyme/perichondrium zones. Radioreceptor assays
on antler microsomal membrane preparations revealed that the IGF-II
binding was to a relatively homogeneous receptor population (Kd
= 1.3 x 10(-10) mol/l) with characteristics that were not entirely
consistent with those normally attributed to the type 2 IGF receptor.
Tracer binding was partly displaceable by IGF-I and insulin at
concentrations above 10 nmol/l. However, affinity cross-linking
studies revealed a single band migrating at 220 kDa under non-reducing
conditions, indicative of the type 2 IGF receptor. These results
indicate that, in antler tip tissues, IGF-II binds to sites which
have different binding patterns and properties from receptors
binding IGF-I. This may have functional significance as it appears
that, whilst IGF-I has a role in matrix development of cartilage,
IGF-II may have a role in the most rapidly differentiating and
proliferating tissues of the antler.
P. F. and J. M. Suttie. 1985. Antler growth: Nutritional and endocrine
factors. In: Biology of Deer Production. Wellington, Royal Soc.
P F 1991 Velvet antler: the product and pharmacology. Proc. Deer
Course for Veterinarians (Deer Branch of the NZ Vet Assoc). 8
JQ, Chen D, Esparza J, Harris MA, Mundy GR, Harris SE Biochim
Biophys Acta 1995 Aug 22;1263(2):163-168 Deer antler tissue contains
two types of bone morphogenetic protein 4 mRNA transcripts. University
of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio 78284-7877, USA.
Previously we isolated
a bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) cDNA from human prostate
cancer cells and found that the 5' noncoding exon 1 of this BMP-4
cDNA was different from that of human bone cell BMP-4 cDNA. Recently
we identified two alternate exon 1s, 1A and 1B, for BMP-4 gene
by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays
from fetal rat calvarial osteoblasts. In order to further examine
alternate exon 1 usage in the BMP-4 gene, we screened deer antler
tissue cDNA library. We isolated two types of cDNA clones encoding
BMP-4 from this deer antler cDNA library. Sequencing of these
clones have revealed a single open reading frame encoding a 408
amino acid protein. Comparison of 5' noncoding exon 1 portion
of these cDNA sequences with those of human bone and prostate
BMP-4 cDNA sequences and mouse BMP-4 genomic DNA sequence demonstrated
that deer antler tissue expresses both exon 1A and 1B containing
BMP-4 mRNA transcripts. This suggests that BMP-4 gene may contain
alternate promoters or alternate splicing sites in deer antler
JQ, Chen D, Ghosh-Choudhury N, Esparza J, Mundy GR, Harris SE
Biochim Biophys Acta 1997 Jan 3;1350(1):47-52 Bone morphogenetic
protein 2 transcripts in rapidly developing deer antler tissue
contain an extended 5' non-coding region arising from a distal
promoter. Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science
Center at San Antonio 78284, USA.
To understand the
regulation of the BMP-2 gene expression, we recently isolated
the BMP-2 gene from a mouse genomic library and characterized
the exon-intron structure and promoter. RNase protection assay
using poly (A)+ RNA of mouseosteoblasts demonstrates that two
regions in BMP-2 gene are protected by antisense mouse BMP-2 RNA
probes. These results demonstrate that BMP-2 gene utilizes two
alternative promoters, a distal and a proximal promoter. In the
present study we demonstrate that BMP-2 mRNA from rapidly growing
deer antler tissue has an extended 5' non-coding region compared
with the human and rat BMP-2 mRNA. The extended 5' non-coding
region in the deer mRNA represents transcripts from the upstream
distal promoter. This is the first evidence of a natural BMP-2
mRNA from a bone-forming tissue that most likely initiated from
the distal transcription start site.
B.D.; M. Gilpin; D. Wiles. Strength training parameters in Edmonton
police recruits following supplementation with elk velvet antler
(EVA). University of Alberta. I 998.
S. 1980a. The hammer and the pesstle. New Scientist. 87 (1209):
S. 1980b. The drug that builds Russians. New Scientist 87 (1215):
RL, Sadighi M, Francis SM, Suttie JM, Fleming JS J Mol Endocrinol
1997 Oct;19(2):173-182 Expression of neurotrophin-3 in the growing
velvet antler of the red deer Cervus elaphus. Department of Physiology
and Centre for Gene Research, Otago School of Medical Sciences,
Dunedin, New Zealand.
Antlers are organs
of bone which regenerate each year from the heads of male deer.
In addition to bone, support tissues such as nerves also regenerate.
Nerves must grow at up to 1 cm/day. The control of this rapid
growth of nerves is unknown. We examined the relative expression
of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) mRNA in the different tissues of the
growing antler tip and along the epidermal/dermal layer of the
antler shaft of the red deer Cervus elaphus, using semi-quantitative
reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Expression in
the tip was found to be highest in the epidermal/dermal layer
and lowest in the cartilaginous layer in all developmental stages
examined. These data correlate well with the density and pattern
of innervation of these tissues. Along the epidermal/dermal layer
of the antler shaft, expression was highest in the segments subjacent
to the tip and lowest near the base, arguing for differences in
the temporal expression of NT-3 in these segments. The expression
of NT-3 in cells isolated from the different layers of 60-day
antlers did not mirror that observed when whole tissues were used
and may suggest regional specificity of NT-3 expression within
D.F; G.G. Sleivert; A. Goulding; S.R. Haines: J. M. Suttie. Clinical
evaluation of New Zealand deer velvet antler on muscle strength
and endurance in healthy male university athletes.
R. J. 1983. Deer antlers. Regeneration, Function, and evolution.
Academic Press Inc., Orlando FL (ISBN 0-12-293080-0), 336p.
RJ Anat Rec 1995 Mar;241(3):291-302 Future directions in antler
research. Division of Biology and Medicine, Brown University,
Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA.
Through a series of
interrogatories, unsolved problems of antler evolution, anatomy,
development, physiology, and pathology are probed, with commentaries,
on the following prospects for future research: 1. How could these
improbable appendages have evolved mechanisms to commit suicide,
jettison the corpse, and regenerate new ones every year? 2. By
what developmental processes are antlers able to prescribe their
own morphogenesis with mirror image accuracy year after year and
in some cases produce deliberate asymmetries? 3. What causes the
scalp to transform into velvet skin as a deer's first antlers
develop? 4. Why do healing pedicle stumps give rise to antler
buds instead of scar tissue? 5. How is the unprecedented rate
of antler elongation related to the diameter and length of the
structure to be grown? 6. How come wound healing by pedicle skin
is held in abeyance for several months until new growth resumes?
7. How is it that tropical deer regenerate antlers at any time
of year, while in temperate zones deer do so in seasonal unison?
8. How do deer find enough calcium to make such massive antlers
in only a few months? 9. What is the nature of the bizarre tumors
that some antlers grow following castration?
C. M., Taylor, M.L., Horton, M.A., Loudon, A.S.I., and Arnett,
T.R. 1989. Studies with cells derived from growing deer antler.
J. Endocrinol. 123: 91.
C, Hukkanen M, Konttinen YT, Terenghi G, Arnett TR, Jones SJ,
Burnstock G, Polak JM Neuroscience 1992 Oct;50(4):953-963 Rapid
neural growth: calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P-containing
nerves attain exceptional growth rates in regenerating deer antler.
Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College,
Deer antler is a unique
mineralized tissue which can produce very high growth rates of
> 1 cm/day in large species. On completion of antler growth,
the dermal tissues which cover the antler are shed and the underlying
calcified tissue dies. After several months the old antler is
discarded and growth of a new one begins. It is known that deer
antlers are sensitive to touch and are innervated. The major aims
of this study were to identify and localize by immunohistochemical
techniques the type of innervation present, and to find out whether
nerve fibres could exhibit growth rates comparable to those of
antler. We have taken tissue sections from the tip and shaft of
growing Red deer (Cervus elaphus) antlers at three stages of development;
shortly after the initiation of regrowth, the rapid growth phase,
and near the end of growth. Incubation of tissue sections with
antisera to protein gene product 9.5 (a neural cytoplasmic protein),
neurofilament triplet proteins (a neural cytoskeletal protein),
substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (both of which
are present in and synthesized by sensory neurons) showed the
presence of immunoreactive nerve fibres in dermal, deep connective
and perichondrial/periosteal tissues at all stages of antler growth.
The sparse distribution of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like
immunoreactivity was found in dermal tissue only at the earliest
stage of antler development. Nerve fibres immunoreactive to neuropeptide
Y, C-flanking peptide of neuropeptide Y and tyrosine hydroxylase,
all present in postganglionic sympathetic nerves, were not observed
at any stage of antler growth. Nerves expressing immunoreactivity
for any of the neural markers or peptides employed could not be
found in cartilage, osteoid or bone. These results show that antlers
are innervated mainly by sensory nerves and that nerves can attain
the exceptionally high growth rates found in regenerating antler.
H., S. H. Yoon, et al. 1990. Study for new hapatotropic
agent from natural resources. I. Effect of antler and old antler
on liver injury induced by benzopyrene in rats. Proc. Japanese
Soc. Food & Nutrition 23: 9.
S. H. 1970. Influence of antler (deer horn) on the enterochromaffin
cells in the gastrointestinal mucosa of rats exposed to starvation,
heat, cold and electric shock. J. Catholic Medical College 19:
M., X-W Yang, S. Kaneko, Y. Nomura & T. Namba. 1989. Constituents
of the pilose antler of Cervus nippon. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 43:
SL, Kakiuchi N, Hattori M, Namba T Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1991
Feb;39(2):384-387 A new monitoring system of cultured myocardial
cell motion: effect of pilose antler extract and cardioactive
agents on spontaneous beating of myocardial cell sheets. Research
Institute for Wakan-yaku (Traditional Sino-Japanese Medicines),
Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University.
Effects of various
cardioactive agents and a water extract of the pilose antler of
Cervus nippon var. mantchuricus on periodic beating of cultured
myocardial cell sheets were examined by using an image analyzing
system. Norepinephrine increased the beating rate and the beating
amplitude, whereas digoxin and forskolin enlarged only the beating
amplitude. Verapamil and propranolol decreased both the beating
rate and the beating amplitude. The water extract of the pilose
antler showed no remarkable effects in a standard medium (2.1
mM Ca2+). However, it significantly increased the beating amplitude
when the beating was suppressed by replacement with a low calcium
medium (0.5 mM Ca2+). A similar effect was found for 70% ethanol-soluble
and -insoluble fractions of the extract.
NF, Isay SV, Busarova NG, Mischenko Tya Comp Biochem Physiol [B]
1993 Sep;106(1):159-162 Prostaglandin-like activity, fatty acid
and phospholipid composition of sika deer (Cervus nippon) antlers
at different growth stages. State Medical Institute, Blagoveschensk,
1. The alteration
of lipid composition has been shown to take place at different
stages of antler growth. 2. The greatest amounts of phospholipids
and polyunsaturated fatty acids have been found during the most
intense soft antler growth period. 3. The bioregulators of lipid
origin which are prostaglandins of A, B, E and F groups have been
found at the same stage.
D. Concern raised about performance enhancing drugs in the US.
BMJ I 998;3 17:702 (12 September).
J.R., and J. Sieper. Oral collagen in the treatment of rheumatoid
arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 1998; 41(2): 191-194.
B. Red Deer Antler Velvet: Growth Hormone Connection, and More!
Health Sciences Institute. 1998; 2(8): 1-2.
W. S. 1970. Influence of antler (deer horn) on the mesenteric
mast cells of rates exposed to heat, cold or electric shock. J.
Cathol. Med. College 19: 1-9.
T. and M. Croucher. 1987. The Healing Arts: Exploring the Medical
Ways of the World. New York, Summit Books.
Y. E., D. K. Lim, et al. 1977. Biochemical studies on antler
(Cervus nippon taiouanus) V: A study of glycolipids and phosholipids
of antler velvet layer and pantocrin. Korean Biochem. J. 10: 153-164.
K. W. and S. W. Park. 1982. A study of the hemopoietic action
of deer horn extract. Korean Biochem. J. 15: 151-157.
Y. E. and K. J. Kim. 1983. Biochemical studies on antler (Cervus
nippon taiouanus). VI. Comparative study on the effect of lipid
soluble fractions of antler spponge and velvet layers and pantocrin
on the aldolase activity in the rat spinal nerves. Yakhak Hoeji
K. B. and S. I. Lee. 1985. Effects of several kinds of antler
upon endocrine functions in rats. Kyung Hee Univ Med. J. ?8: 91-110.
KM, Yip TT, Tsao SW, Kong YC, Fennessy P, Belew MC, Porath J Gen
Comp Endocrinol 1986 Sep;63(3):431-440 Epidermal growth factor
from deer (Cervus elaphus) submaxillary gland and velvet antler.
Epidermal growth factor
(EGF)-like activity was isolated for the first time from the submaxillary
gland (SMG) and the velvet antler of red deer (Cervus elaphus)
by a combination of Sephadex gel or DEAE-Sephacel and IMAC columns
in succession. The semipurified cervine EGF-like activity (cEGF),
with specific activity of 4.7 ng/micrograms protein from the velvet
tissues, can generate a completely parallel competitive binding
curve against mouse EGF in both radioreceptor assay (RRA) and
radioimmunoassay (RIA). Mitogenic activity of EGF from both tissues
was demonstrated by stimulating the incorporation of [3H]thymidine
in two different cell lines of fibroblast culture in a dose-dependent
manner. The velvet layer may be the site of EGF synthesis outside
Y., K. Ko, et al. 1987. Epidermal growth factor of the
cervine velvet antler. Acta. Zool. Sin., 33: 301-308:
LK, Barrell GK Steroids 1994 Aug;59(8):490-492 Regional distribution
of estradiol receptors in growing antlers. Animal and Veterinary
Sciences Group, Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand.
This study of estrogen
receptors (ER) was carried out to confirm their presence and to
determine their localisation in antler bones. Partially grown
antlers were amputated from red deer (Cervus elaphus) stags, the
skin removed, and samples taken of periosteum, cartilaginous tissue
including perichondrium, and bone. Capacity and binding of free
ER in the samples were calculated by Scatchard analysis of data
obtained from a radioreceptor assay which utilised [3H]estradiol
as tracer. High affinity ER (ka 1.3-3.4 x 10(10)/M) were detected
in all tissues sampled with the exception of bone. Receptor capacity
ranged from 12-74 fmol/mg protein, ranking the tissues for capacity
in the following descending order: periosteum, cartilage, calcified
cartilage. These results demonstrate the presence of ER in growing
antlers and indicate regional localization of the receptors within
these structures. The absence of ER in bone tissue within the
antler suggests that the effect of estradiol on stimulation of
mineralization in this tissue is indirect and must occur via its
binding to the non-calcified tissues of antlers, e.g., periosteum,
perichondrium, and cartilage.
C, Waldrup KA, Corson ID, Littlejohn RP, Suttie JM J Exp Zool
1995 Aug 1;272(5):345-355 Histogenesis of antlerogenic tissues
cultivated in diffusion chambers in vivo in red deer (Cervus elaphus).
AgResearch, Invermay Agricultural Centre, Mosgiel, New Zealand.
In a previous study
we showed that formation of deer pedicle and first antler proceeded
through four ossification pattern change stages: intramembranous,
transition, pedicle endochondral, and antler endochondral. In
the present study antlerogenic tissues (antlerogenic periosteum,
apical periosteum/perichondrium, and apical perichondrial of pedicle
and antler) taken from four developmental stages were cultivated
in diffusion chambers in vivo as autografts for 42-68 days. The
results showed that all the cultivated tissues without exception
formed trabecular bone de novo, irrespective of whether they were
forming osseous, osseocartilaginous, or cartilaginous tissue at
the time of initial implant surgery; in two cases in the apical
perichondria from antler group, avascularized cartilage also formed.
Therefore, the antlerogenic cells, like the progenitor cells of
somatic secondary type cartilage, have a tendency to differentiate
into osteoblasts and then form trabecular bone. Consequently,
the differentiation pathway whereby antlerogenic cells change
from forming osteoblasts to forming chondroblasts during pedicle
formation is caused by extrinsic factors. Both oxygen tension
and mechanical pressure are postulated to be the factors that
cause this alteration of the differentiation pathway.
LI, Kats MA Vrach Delo 1975 Aug;8:135-136 Anaphylactic shock as
a response to subcutaneous administration of pantocrine. Article
SC, Bowman BM, Jee WS Bone 1995 Oct;17(4 Suppl):117S-123S Available
animal models of osteopenia--small and large. Division of Radiobiology,
School of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City 84112,
Animal models of osteopenia
are reviewed. Endocrine excess or deficiency conditions include
ovariectomy, orchidectomy, glucocorticoid excess and other endocrine
states. Seasonal and reproductive cycles are usually transient
and include pregnancy and lactation, egg-laying, antler formation
and hibernation. Dietary conditions include calcium deficiencies,
phosphate excess and vitamin C and D deficiencies. Mechanical
usage effects include skeletal underloading models. Aging is also
associated with osteopenia in many species.
P; R. Manopulo; M. Galati; L. Boccanera; G. Saponati; L. Bocchi.
Comparison of the antiinflammatory efficacy of chondroitin sulfate
and diclofenac sodium in patients with knee osteoarthritis. J
Rheumatol 1996; 23:1 385-I 391.
P. D., Sykes, A.R., Barrell, G.K. 1988. Changes in blood content
and histology during growth of antlers in red deer, Cervus elaphus,
and their relationship to plasma testosterone levels. J. Anat.
AA, Kuznetsova SM, Miakisheva SN Radiobiologiia 1990 Mar;30(2):170-174
The modifying action of the Japanese pagoda tree (Sophora japonica)
and pantocrine in radiation lesions. [Article in Russian]
A study was made of
the effect of Sophora japonica and pantocrine on irradiated (2.5
Gy) human lymphoblastoid cells. The radioprotective effect was
manifested with the preparations injected separately after irradiation.
The highest radioprotective effect was produced by the mixture
of the preparations, the injection 15 min after irradiation being
more effective than preinjection. The protective effect of the
agents was studied on mongrel mice after the administration thereof
for the purposes of protection protection-and-treatment and treatment.
Sophora japonica and pantocrine were shown to increase the survival
rate of lethally exposed mice (LD90/30) when administered in a
combination 5-15 min before irradiation and when used for the
purposes of protection--and--treatment: 53.3% and 50% of animals,
respectively, survived by day 30 following irradiation. DMF was
L.;A. Conte; L. Giovannini; P Lualdi; G. Ronca. Metabolic fate
of exogenous chondroitin sulfate in the experimental animal. Arzneim-Forsch
Drug Res I 990; 40 (l):319-323.
JS, Oyajobi BO, Nalin AM, Frazer A, Russell RG, Sandell LJ Dev
Dyn 1996 Mar;205(3):332-347 Chondrogenesis in the regenerating
antler tip in red deer: expression of collagen types I, IIA, IIB,
and X demonstrated by in situ nucleic acid hybridization and immunocytochemistry.
Department of Human Metabolism and Clinical Biochemistry, University
of Sheffield Medical School, U.K.
The annual regrowth
of antlers in male deer is a unique example of complete bone regeneration
occurring in an adult animal. Growth is initiated at the distal
antler tip, which is similar to the epiphyseal growth plate in
some respects. However, there is some debate as to whether this
process represents "true" endochondral ossification. As part of
the characterization of the developmental process in pre-osseus
antler tissue, we have studied, by in situ hybridization, the
spatial expression of mRNAs for types I, II, and X collagen. Viewed
in a coronal plane, type I procollagen mRNA was observed in skin,
the fibrous perichondrium, and the densely cellular area immediately
adjacent to the perichondrium. Below this area, as cells began
to assume a columnar arrangement and coincident with the appearance
of a vasculature and synthesis of a cartilaginous matrix, transcripts
for types I, IIA, IIB procollagen and X collagen were detected.
Further down in the cartilage zone, the pattern of type I procollagen
mRNA expression was altered. Here, the signal was detected only
in a morphologically distinct subpopulation of small, flattened
cells within the intercellular matrix at the periphery of the
columns of chondrocytes. The alternative splice form of type II
procollagen mRNA (IIA), characteristic of chondroprogenitor cells
(Sandell et al.  J. Cell Biol. 114:1307-1319), was
expressed by a subset of cells in the upper region of the columns,
indicating that this zone contains a population of prechondrocytic
cells. Positive hybridization to type IIA was most abundant in
these cells. In contrast, transcripts for the other procollagen
splice form (IIB) and type X collagen were expressed by chondrocytes
throughout the whole of the cartilage region studied. The translation
and export of type II collagen and type X collagen were confirmed
by detecting specific immunoreactivity for each. The spatial distribution
of immunoreactivity for collagen types II and X was consistent
with that of corresponding mRNAs. These data demonstrate for the
first time the distinct pattern of expression of genes for major
cartilage matrix macromolecules, the expression of the differentially
spliced form of type II procollagen mRNA (IIA), and specifically
the co-localization of types II and X collagen in the developing
antler tip. Taken together, they strongly indicate that antler
growth involves an endochondral process.
V, Brown RD Comp Biochem Physiol A 1988;89(2):279-281 A technique
for the in vitro incubation of deer antler tissue. Caesar Kleberg
Wildlife Research Institute, Texas A&I University, Kingsville
1. A procedure for
the in vitro incubation of velvet deer antler tissue was developed.
Biopsy samples were collected in June with a trephine from 2 adult
white-tailed deer and incubated in modified BGJb medium up to
48 hr. Calcium (Ca) and hydroxyproline (OH-proline) concentrations
in the tissue were determined.
2. A significant increase
(P less than 0.05) in Ca was exhibited at 4 and 8 hr of incubation,
and, after replenishment of media, at 48 hr.
concentrations continued to rise throughout the duration of the
incubation period and were significantly higher than controls
(P less than 0.05) at 16, 24, and 48 hr. 4. Results suggest antler
tissue can be incubated in vitro with the protocol described,
although length of incubation may vary with parameter measured.
GJ, Milne G, Bos KJ, Farquharson C, Robins SP Comp Biochem Physiol
B Biochem Mol Biol 1997 Oct;118(2):303-308 Deer antler does not
represent a typical endochondral growth system: immunoidentification
of collagen type X but little collagen type II in growing antler
tissue. Rowett Research Institute, Bucksburn, Aberdeen, U.K. firstname.lastname@example.org
The collagen isotypes
present at early (6 week) and late (5 month) stages of growing
deer antler were isolated and identified. Pepsin-digested collagens
were separated by differential salt fractionation, SDS-PAGE and
Western blotting and subsequently identified by immunostaining.
Cyanogen bromide digestion of antler tissue was used to establish
a collagen type-specific pattern of peptides, and these were also
identified by immunoblotting. Collagen type I was found to be
the major collagen in both early- and late-stage antler. Collagen
type II was present in the young antler in small amounts but was
not confined to the soft "cartilaginous" tip of the antler. Collagen
type XI was found in the pepsin digest of the young antler, but
collagen type IX was not present at either stage of antler growth.
Collagen type X was found in the young antler in all fractions
studied. Microscopic study showed that the deer antler did not
possess a discrete growth plate as found in endochondral bone
growth. Unequivocal immunolocalization of the different collagen
types in the antler were unsuccessful. These results show that,
despite the presence in the antler of many cartilage collagens,
growth does not occur through a simple endochondral process.
M, Haines SR, Skottner A, Harris AJ, Suttie JM J Endocrinol 1994
Dec;143(3):461-469 AgResearch, Invermay Agricultural Centre, Mosgiel,
New Zealand Effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and
IGF-II on the growth of antler cells in vitro.
The effects of insulin-like
growth factors -I and -II (IGF-I and -II) on the growth of undifferentiated
(fibroblast zone) cells from the growing tip of red deer velvet
antlers and from cells 1.5 cm distal to the growing tip (cartilage
zone) were investigated in primary cell culture. The addition
of IGF-I or IGF-II to the medium of cultures preincubated in serum-free
medium for 24 h increased the rate of [3H]thymidine uptake in
a dose-dependent manner in both cell types, with maximal stimulation
occurring when 1 nM-30 nM was added. The addition of IGF-II to
the incubation medium containing IGF-I did not cause a further
increase in [3H]thymidine uptake in either cell type over and
above each growth factor alone, indicating that there were unlikely
to be synergistic effects of IGF-II on the mitogenicity of IGF-I.
Binding studies were carried out using 3 x 10(5) fibroblast zone
cells and cartilage zone cells after they had been incubated in
serum-free medium for 24 h. 125I-Labelled IGF-I (10(-9) M) in
a final volume of 200 microliters was added to each culture and
incubation carried out at 4 degrees C for a further hour. 125I-Labelled
IGF-I bound specifically to both fibroblasts and cartilage zone
cells; binding was displaced by both unlabelled IGF-I and by IGF-I
AJ, Grimberg R, Silve C, Tau C, Garabedian M Endocrinology 1989
Nov;125(5):2312-2319 Evidence for extrarenal production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin
during physiological bone growth: in vivo and in vitro production
by deer antler cells. Centre d'Etudes Biologiques des Animaux
Sauvages (CNRS), Beauvoir-sur-Niort, France.
The development of
deer antler follows a pattern similar to that described for mammalian
endochondral ossification and has been proposed as a suitable
model for studies of bone growth. We investigated seasonal changes
in the plasma concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25-(OH)2D]
and calcium and the activity of alkaline phosphatase in relation
to the antler cycle during 1 yr in 4 captive roe deer and measured
these biological parameters in 27 wild roe deer during their antler
cycle. A significant elevation of 1,25-(OH)2D in peripheral plasma,
with no parallel increase in the concentration of its precursor
25-hydroxyvitamin D, was observed to accompany the rapid growth
phase of the antler cycle in captive (P less than 0.001) and wild
(P less than 0.025) deer. During the same phase there was a gradient
in levels of 1,25-(OH)2D in antler vs. jugular blood (P less than
0.01). In addition, velvet cells in culture proved to have the
ability to convert 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 into a more polar derivative,
which was indistinguishable from true 1,25-(OH)2D3 with regard
to its chromatographic properties, its UV absorbance at 254 nm,
and its ability to bind to the 1,25-(OH)2D3 receptors present
in chick intestinal cytosol. These in vivo and in vitro results
strongly suggest that local production of 1,25-(OH)2D by the antler
cells does occur in vivo and may contribute to the increase in
plasma 1,25-(OH)2D during bone growth.
I.; C. Giacchetti; G. Zanolo 1986. Pharmacokinetics of glucosamine
in dog and in man.Arzneim.-Forsch. Drug Res; 36 (I): 729-735.
I.; R. Palumbo; S. Canali; G. Zanolo 1993. Pharmacokinetics of
glucosamine in man.Arzneim.-Forsch. Drug Res; 43(l I):1109-1113.
J. S., Sunwoo, H. H. and Hudson, R. J. 1995a. Cell growth promoting
factors in water-soluble fraction of Canadian elk (Cervus elaphus)
antler. page 111, 1st International Conference on East-West Perspectives
on Functional Foods, Singapore, September, 26-29, 1995.
J. S., Sunwoo, H. H., Hudson R. J. and Kurylo, S. L. 1995b. Chemical
and pharmacological characterization of Canadian elk (Cervus elaphus)
antler extracts. page 68, 3rd World congress of medicinal acupuncture
and natural medicine, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, August 10-12-1995.
H. H. Nakano, T. Hudson, R. J. and Sim, J. S. 1995. Chemical composition
of antlers from wapiti (Cervus elaphus). J. Agric. Food Chem.
H. H. 1998. Isolation and characterization of proteoglycans in
growing antlers of wapiti (Cervus elaphus). Chapter 8 In Chemical
characterization of growing antlers of Wapiti (Cervus elaphus).
Ph. D. thesis, University of Alberta.
H. H., Nakano, T. and Sim, J. S. 1997. Effect of water soluble
extract from antlers of wapiti (Cervus elaphus) on the growth
of fibroblasts. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 77:343-345.
H. H. and Sim, J. S. 1996. Chemical and pharmacological characterization
of Canadian elk (Cervus eoaphus) antler extracts. 96–World Federation
Symposium of Korean Scientists and Engineers Association, June
28 – July 4, 1996, Seoul Korea, WFKSEA Prodeedings 96: 706-713.
J. M., P. D. GLuckman, et al. 1985. Insulin like growth
factor 1: antler stimulating hormone? Endocrinol. 116: 846-848:
J. M., P. F. Fennessy, et al. 1989. Pulsatile growth hormone,
insulin-like growth factors and antler development in red deer
(Cervus elaphus scoticus) stags. J. Endocrinol. 121: 351-360.
J. M., P. F. Fennessy, et al. 1991. Antler growth in deer.
Proc. Deer Course for Veterinarians (Deer Branch, NZ Vet Assoc)
J. M., I. D. Corson, et al. 1991. Insulin-like growth factor
1, growth and body composition in red deer stags. Anim. Prod.
J. M., Fennessy, P. F., Haines, S. R., Sadighi, M., Kerr, D.R.
and Issacs, C. 1994. The New Zealand velvet antler industry: Background
and research findings. International symposium on Cervi Parvum
Cornu. KSP Proceedings. Oct. &, 1994. Seoul, Korea, pp 86-135.
K., N. Kokubu, et al. 1972. Studies on experimental whiplash
injury. II. Evaluation of Pantui extracts, Pantocrin as a remedy.
Folia Pharmacol. Japon. 68: 473-488. [Article in Japanese]
K., N. Kokubu, et al. 1972. Studies on experimental whiplash
injury. III. Changes in enzyme activiation of cervicxal cords
and effect of Pantui extracts, Pantocrin as a remedy. Folia Pharmacol
Japon. 68: 489-493.
D.E.; RA. Dynesius-Trentham; F.J. Orav; et al. 1993, Effects of
oral administration of type II collagen on rheumatoid arthritis.
Science 261:1 727-1730.
B. 1996, Advances in research of chemistry, pharmacology and clinical
application of pilose antler. Proceedings of the 1996 International
Symposium on Deer Science and Deer Products. I4-31.
B. X., X. H. Zhao, et al. 1988. Effects of repeated administration
of deer antler extract on biochemical changes related to aging
in senescence-accelerated mice. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 36: 2593-2598.
B. X., X. H. Zhao, et al. 1988. Stimulating effect of deer
antler extract on protein synthesis in senescence-accelerated
mice in vivo. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 36: 2593-2598.
B. X., X. H. Zhao, et al. 1988. Inhibition of liquid peroxidation
bu deer antler (Rokujo) extract in vivo and in vitro. J. Med.
Pharm. Soc. for WAKAN-Yaku 5: 123-128.
BX, Zhao XH, Qi SB, Yang XW, Kaneko S, Hattori M, Namba T, Nomura
Y Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1988 Jul;36(7):2593-2598 Stimulating
effect of deer antler extract on protein synthesis in senescence-accelerated
mice in vivo.
BX, Zhou QL Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 1991;26(9):714-720 Advances in
the chemical, pharmacological and clinical studies on pilose antler.
[Article in Chinese]
BX, Liu AJ, Cheng XJ, Wang QG, Wei GR, Cui JC Yao Hsueh Hsueh
Pao 1985 May;20(5):321-325 Anti-ulcer action of the polysaccharides
isolated from pilose antler. [Article in Chinese]
BX, Chen XG, Xu HB, Zhang W, Zhang J Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 1990;25(9):652-657
Effect of polyamines isolated from pilose antler (PASPA) on RNA
polymerase activities in mouse liver. [Article in Chinese] Department
of Pharmacology, Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changchun.
of [3H] leucine into protein and [3H] uridine into RNA in mouse
liver were increased when PASPA was given to mice at a dose of
30 mg/kg for 4 successive days. The RNA polymerase activity, especially
the RNA polymerase II activity in the solubilized liver nuclear
fraction of PASPA-treated mice was also increased. In vitro experiment
demonstrated that PASPA increased the RNA polymerase activity
significantly in mouse liver nuclei at a concentration of 1 microgram/ml.
These results suggest that the enhancement of RNA polymerase activities,
particularly RNA polymerase II activity, induced by PASPA treatment
is responsible for the increase in synthesis of protein and RNA
in mouse liver tissue.
BX, Chen XG, Zhang W Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 1990;25(5):321-325 Influence
of the active compounds isolated from pilose antler on syntheses
of protein and RNA in mouse liver. [Article in Chinese] Department
of Pharmacology, Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Materia
Medica of Jilin Province, Changchun.
The polyamines of
pilose antler (PASPA) consist of putrescine (PU, 70.9%), spermidine
(SPD, 26.3%) and spermine (SP, 2.8%). The incorporations of [3H]
leucine into protein and [3H] uridine into RNA in mouse liver
tissue were increased when PASPA was given orally to mice at the
dose of 30 mg/kg for 4 successive days. The incorporations of
[3H] leucine into liver protein and [3H] uridine into the cytosolic
and nuclear RNA were also increased by treatment with PU (21 mg/kg).
In addition, the RNA polymerase activity in the solubilized liver
nuclear fraction of PU (21 mg/kg)-treated mice was increased.
SPD only promoted the synthesis of protein in mouse liver tissue
at the dose of 8 mg/kg. However, SP showed no effect on the synthesis
of protein and RNA polymerase activity under the used dose (1
mg/kg). The results suggest that PASPA is the main active substance
responsible for the promotion of the synthesis of protein and
RNA in mouse liver.
N., and M.E. Nimni. 1998. Cartilage collagens. In: Collagen, Volume
I. M.E. Nimmi, ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press. 225-24 I.
P. 1989. The effect of deer horn on the experimental anemia of
rabbits. Journal Pharmaochemical Society Korea. 8: 6-11.
A. M. and Y. L. Dubryakov 1974. A guide for the preparation and
storage of uncalcified male antlers as a medicinal raw material.
In Reindeer antlers, Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Far East
Science Center. Vladivostock.
QC, Kiyohara H, Nagai T, Yamada H Carbohydr Res 1992 Jun 16;230(2):361-372
Structure of the complement-activating proteoglycan from the pilose
antler of Cervus nippon Temminck. Oriental Medicine Research Center,
Kitasato Institute, Tokyo, Japan.
polysaccharide, DWA-2, isolated from an unossified pilose antler
of C. nippon Temminck by digestion with pronase, gel filtration,
and affinity chromatography, consisted mainly of GalNAc, GlcA,
IdoA, and sulfate in the molar ratios 1.0:0.6:0.3:0.8, and small
proportions of Man, Gal, GlcNAc, and protein (4.5%). Methylation
analysis, NMR spectroscopy, and degradation with enzymes indicated
that DWA-2 contained chondroitin sulfate A-, B-, and C-like moieties.
DWA-2 showed potent anti-complementary activity, and crossed immunoelectrophoresis
indicated that it cleaved complement C3 in the absence of Ca2+
ion. Digestion of DWA-2 with chondroitinase ABC or ACI reduced
the anti-complementary activity to a low level, but digestion
with chondroitinase B reduced the activity by approximately 40%
and the enzyme-resistant fraction still showed a significant activity.
D, Zhang X, Zhou F, Wei Z, Tian H Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih
1990 Jan;15(1):37-39 Relation of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic
characteristics of pilose antler and its traditional quality grade.
[Article in Chinese] Beijing Institute for Drug Control.
The relationship between
FTIR characteristics of Pilose Antler and its traditional quality
grade was studied and a rule governing its quality value "Z" was
found. We have thus advanced a new objective target for preparing
Pilose Antler tablets and powder.
ZQ, Zhang Y, Wang BX, Zhou HO, Wang Y, Zhang H Yao Hsueh Hsueh
Pao 1992;27(5):321-324 Purification and partial characterization
of anti-inflammatory peptide from pilose antler of Cervus nippon
Temminck. Department of Pharmacology, Academy of Traditional Chinese
Medicine and Materia Medica of Jilin Province, Changchun.
compound was purified and isolated from pilose antler of Cervus
nippon Temminck by dialysis, gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography
techniques. HPLC and N-terminal amion acid analysis identified
the compound as a homogeneous peptide. The peptide is composed
of 68 amino acids and its molecular weight as determined by amino
analysis, is about 7200.
EV, Dobriakov IuI Klin Med (Mosk) 1995;73(5):77-78 Experience
in the use of rantarine in the treatment of internal diseases.
[Article in Russian]
P, Wang XT, Currey JD J Biomech 1996 Aug;29(8):989-1002 Experimental
and theoretical quantification of the development of damage infatigue
tests of bone and antler. Department of Biology, University of
This study concerns
the development of damage (as measured by a reduction in elastic
modulus) in two kinds of bones differing considerably in their
degrees of mineralisation: laminar bone from bovine femur and
osteonal bone from red deer antler. Antler bone is much tougher
than 'ordinary' bone and its failure properties have been investigated
in: (i) monotonic tensile tests and (ii) creep rupture experiments.
Tensile fatigue is another way of examining how damage develops
in bone. The development of damage in the present fatigue tests
was non-linear with the cycle number, the degree of non-linearity
was dependent on the level of stress and followed a clearly different
course for bone and antler. Antler was a more damage-tolerant
material, being able to achieve a reduction in the final modulus
of elasticity, just prior to failure, three times greater than
‘ordinary’ bone. The evolution of damage is quantified by an empirical
and a graphical method and by the use of Continuum Damage Mechanics
(CDM) expressions. The CDM method shows important conditions,
found in antler, but not in bone, that seen necessary for achieving
stable fractures and consequently producing very tough materials.
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